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DPT Faculty Publications

Faculty members in the Doctorate of Physical Therapy program have had several publications since joining CHHS.

Neelly K, Wallmann HW, Backus C. Validity of Measuring Leg Length with Tape Measure Compared to CT Scan. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. Accepted.

  • A frequently used technique to measure leg length (LL) is the supine tape measure method (TMM). However, radiographic imaging, more recently computed tomography (CT) scans, has been considered the most accurate. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the TMM for measuring LL compared to CT scans. Additionally, intrarater and interrater reliability of the TMM were assessed. LL measurements of 30 adults (mean  =  38.4 years, SD  =  13.1 years) were obtained by two physical therapists (PT) using the TMM method, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to medial malleoli. Lower extremity CT scans were completed and subsequent LL measurements were obtained. The validity of a single TMM LL compared to CT scan was ICC(2,1) of 0.984 for examiner 1 and 0.978 for examiner 2, while the ICC(2,2) validity of the mean of two measures was 0.992 and 0.990, respectively. Excellent intrarater (ICC3,2 of 0.990 and 0.985) and interrater reliability (ICC2,1 of 0.991) were also found. The supine TMM for measuring LL was shown to have excellent validity when compared to CT scans and excellent intrarater and interrater reliability. These results indicate that the supine TMM is a valid and reliable clinical measurement for PTs when measuring LL.

*Abstract from

Delgado T, Kubera-Shelton E, Robb R, Hickman R, Wallmann HW, Dufek J. Effects of footstrike on low back posture, shock attenuation, and comfort. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2013. DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182781b2c.


  • Barefoot running (BF) is gaining popularity in the running community. Biomechanical changes occur with BF, especially when initial contact changes from rearfoot strike (RFS) to forefoot strike (FFS). Changes in lumbar spine range of motion (ROM), particularly involving lumbar lordosis, have been associated with increased low back pain. However, it is not known if changing from RFS to FFS affects lumbar lordosis or low back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a change from RFS to FFS would change lumbar lordosis, influence shock attenuation, or change comfort levels in healthy recreational/experienced runners.


*Abstract from

Wallmann HW, Evans NS, Day C, Neelly KR. Interrater Reliability of the Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test. Home Health Care Management & Practice. 25(1):13-17, 2013. DOI: 10.1177/1084822312453047.

  • The sit-to-stand (STS) task, an important activity required to maintain functional independence, can be used to assess physical performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSTS). Ninety-two subjects, mean age of 65 years, performed the FTSTS without the use of the upper extremities. A video recording of each subject’s performance was independently assessed to determine the test completion time by three clinicians with similar education and years of clinical experience. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) was used to determine the interrater reliability of the FTSTS. Statistical analysis revealed excellent interrater reliability among all three researchers: ICC = 1.000. When clinicians with equal education and clinical experience administer the FTSTS, it has excellent interrater reliability.


*Abstract from


Wallmann HW, Player KR, Bugnet, M. Acute effects of static stretching on balance in young versus elderly adults. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics. 30(4):301-315, 2013. DOI: 10.3109/02703181.2012.719076.

  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of static stretching of the gastrocnemius muscles on the dynamic balance of healthy young and elderly adults. Thirty adults aged 18 to 35 years, and 18 elderly adults aged 65 years and older participated in this study. Utilizing the NeuroCom SMART Balance Master, each subject performed the limits of stability (LOS) test twice before implementing a 30-s static stretching protocol of the gastrocnemius muscles and once after the intervention. There was a significant difference between the young and elderly groups for all outcome measures on the LOS test after the first measurement (pretest 1) (p ≤ 0.004). Movement velocity for pretest 1 was significantly slower than pretest 2 (p ≤ 0.005), while endpoint excursion distance improved across all points (p ≤ 0.039). For the post-test, all the components of the LOS test, except endpoint excursion, showed no significant treatment effect (p ≥ 0.016) with the Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.01. Although differences between young and elderly subjects were observed, these results indicate that short duration static stretching of the gastrocnemius muscles has little or no effect on dynamic balance in healthy young and elderly adults.

*Abstract from


Wallmann HW, Christensen SD, Perry C, Hoover DL. The Acute Effects of Various Types of Stretching Static, Dynamic, Ballistic, and No Stretch of the Iliopsoas on 40 Yard Sprint Times in Recreational Runners. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 7(5):540-547, 2012.

  • The potential adverse effects of static stretching on athletic performance are well documented, but still appears to be controversial, especially as they relates to sprinting. The prevalence of this practice is demonstrated by the number of competitive and recreational athletes who regularly engage in stretching immediately prior to sprinting with the mindset of optimizing their performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute static, dynamic, and ballistic stretching, and no stretching of the iliopsoas muscle on 40-yard sprint times in 18-37 year-old non-competitive, recreational runners.



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