Western Kentucky University

Exercise Science Staff - Mark Schafer

Dr. Mark Schafer, Ph.D., CES, CSCS

Dr. Mark Schafer, Ph.D., CES, CSCS

Undergraduate Program Coordinator- Exercise Science / Graduate Program Coordinator - Kinesiology - Assistant Professor

Office:  Smith Stadium East 1059
Phone:  (270) 745-5857
Email:  mark.schafer@wku.edu


EXS 412 Exercise Testing & Prescription 
EXS 420 Clinical Exercise Physiology
KIN 522 Advanced Exercise Testing & Prescription
KIN 514 Lab Methods in Exercise Physiology




Research Areas of Interest:  Health benefits and potential mechanisms of post exercise hypotension (PEH).  My investigations attempt to determine the impact that a range of exercise durations and intensities plays in lowering the post exercise blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive individuals. 

 Selected Publications:

Schafer M, Goss F, Robertson R, Nagle-Stilley E, Kim K. Intensity selection and regulation using the OMNI scale of perceived exertion during intermittent exercise.  Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Published on the web 10 April 2013, 10.1139/apnm-2012-0446

Schafer M, Thekkada SJ, Gallagher MJ, Hunt SE, Goss FL, Aaron DJ, and Robertson RJ. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Effort Recall Questionnaire.  In press, accepted, December 2012.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport .

Schafer M, Kell H, Navalta J, Tibana R, Lyons TS, and Arnett S.  Effects of a Simulated Tennis Match on Lymphocyte Subset Measurements.  In press, accepted, June 2013.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.

Navalta, J.W., Lyons, S., Prestes, J., Arnett, S.W., Schafer, M., Sobrero, G.L. Exercise intensity and lymphocyte subset apoptosis. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2013; 34(3), p. 268-273.

Navalta J, Lyons T, Pereira G, Arnett SW, Schafer M, Esslinger F, and Sobrero G. Effectiveness of blended instruction utilizing on-line lectures and split classes in delivering an applied exercise physiology course. Medical Physiology Online 2012; published Jan 14, 2012 available from http://medicalphysiologyonline.wordpress.com

Friedman R, Navalta J, Fedor E, Kell H, Lyons T, Arnett S, and Schafer M. Repeated High-Intensity Wingate Cycle Bouts Influence Lymphocyte Migration but not Apoptosis.  Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2012; 37(2):241-6.

Gallagher M, Robertson R, Nagle F, Goss F, Schafer M, Hostler D, and Suyama J. Development of a Perceptual Hyperthermia Index to Evaluate Heat Strain during Treadmill Exercise.  Euorpean Journal of Applied Physiology. 2012; 112(6): 2025-2034.   

Navalta J., McFarlin B., Lyons T., Ramos A, Arnett S, and Schafer M. Intra- and Interrater Reliability of Morphologically Evaluated Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Trained and Untrained Observers.  Biology of Sport.  2011; Vol. 28 Issue 4, p223. 

Navalta J, McFarlin B, Simpson R, Fedor E, Kell H, Lyons S, Arnett S, and Schafer M. Finger-stick blood sampling methodology for the determination of exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis. 2011; Journal of Visualized Experiments. (48).

Navalta J, McFarlin B, Lyons S, Arnett S, and Schafer M. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis. Clinics. 2011;66(2):197-202.

Mays R, Goss F, Schafer M, Kim K, Nagle-Stilley E, and Robertson R. Validation of adult omni perceived exertion scales for elliptical ergometry. Perceptual Motor Skills. 2010;111(3):848-62.

Robertson R, Goss F, Aaron D, Nagle E, Gallagher M, Jr., Kane I, Tessmer K, Schafer M, and Hunt S. Concurrent muscle hurt and perceived exertion of children during resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2009;41(5):1146-54.

Selected Presentations:

Schafer MA, Navalta JW, Arnett SW, Lyons TS, Sobrero G, Bean S, Shannon Sims S, Kirkwood K , Goss FL. Participation in a 10K Running Race Significantly Decreases Post Exercise Blood Pressure.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2012; 44 (5): S242

Friedman R.A., Lyons T.S., Navalta J.W., Schafer M.S., Arnett S.A.  Investigation Of C-reactive Protein And Leptin As Biomarkers Of Obesity With Potential Clinical Utility.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2012; 44 (5): S67

Bush J, Schafer MA,  Arnett S,  Navalta J,  Lyons S, Sobrero G. (2012)  Post-Exercise Hypotension in brief exercise.  Annual Meeting of the Southeast American College of Sports Medicine, Jacksonville, FL. 

Kirkwood D, Sims S, Igaune L, Navalta JW,  Lyons TS, and Schafer MA. (2012) Effect of different exercise test protocols on post-exercise hypotension.   Annual Meeting of the Southeast American College of Sports Medicine, Jacksonville, FL.   

Navalta JW,  Lyons TS,  Whitlock S,  Kirkwood D, Arnett SW, Schafer MA, and Sobrero G. (2012) The disease analog model and leptin may identify susceptible pre-obese African American women.   Annual Meeting of the Southeast American College of Sports Medicine, Jacksonville, FL.  



PhD: University of Pittsburgh
MS:   Ohio University
BS:   Ohio University


NSCA, Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist, CSCS®

ACSM Certified Clinical Exercise Specialist®

Professional Background:

Assistant Professor of Exercise Science (2008 - present)      
Western Kentucky University – Department of Kinesiology, Recreation and Sport     
Instructor – Exercise Science (2007-2008)      
Slippery Rock University – Department of Exercise and Rehabilitative Science      

Campus Fitness Coordinator (2006-2007)        
University of Pittsburgh - Baierl Student Recreation Center   
Research Study Coordinator, Botox Clinical Trial for Post–Stroke Spasticity (2003-2004)  
Drake Center, Cincinnati, Ohio                      

Exercise Specialist, Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation (2002-2004)     
Drake Center, Cincinnati, Ohio       
Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation/Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (1997-2002)   
New Hanover Health Network, Wilmington, North Carolina   

Other Information:

Section Editor for the International Journal of Exercise Science 2009- present

Faculty Senate, Senate Representative, Fall 2008 to Spring 2011

Undergraduate Curriculum Committee, Senate Representative Fall 2009 and Spring 2010

Faculty Advisor and founder of the Exercise Science Club, Fall 2008 to present

Faculty Advisor for the Run Club, Spring 2012 to present

Faculty Advisor for the Longboard Club, Fall 2013 to present

 Last Modified 7/22/13