In addition to elements required specifically at Texas A&M, below we have explained the basic requirements from W3C and additional optional/recommended elements.
All non-text content that is presented to the user must have a text alternative that
presents equivalent information (e.g., via "ALT", "LONGDESC", or in element content),
except for the situations listed below.Techniques WCAG2 * Controls-Input — If non-text
content is a control or accepts user input, then it has a name that describes its
purpose. * Media, Test, Sensory — If non-text content is multimedia, live audio-only
or live video-only content, a test or exercise that must be presented in non-text
format, or primarily intended to create a specific sensory experience, then text alternatives
at least identify the non-text content with a descriptive text label. * CAPTCHA —
If the purpose of non-text content is to confirm that content is being accessed by
a person rather than a computer, then text alternatives that identify and describe
the purpose of the non-text content are provided and alternative forms in different
modalities are provided to accommodate different disabilities. * Decoration, Formatting,
Invisible Objects — If non-text content is pure decoration, or used only for visual
formatting, or if it is not presented to users, then it is implemented such that it
can be ignored by assistive technology.
Equivalent Alternatives for Multimedia
Any prerecorded multimedia presentation that contains visual, speech, or other audio
information necessary for the comprehension of the content must have an equivalent
alternative (e.g., captions, an auditory description of the visual track, or a separate
text description of the video) Techniques WCAG1 * Captions (Multimedia) — Any prerecorded
multimedia, except for multimedia alternatives to text that are clearly labeled as
such, containing speech or other audio information necessary for the comprehension
of the content must provide captions. Techniques WCAG2 * Audio Description or Full
Text Alternative — Any prerecorded multimedia that contains visual information necessary
for the comprehension of the content must provide a synchronized audio description
of the video (or of the important information of the visual track). If a synchronized
alternative is not possible, a full text alternative for multimedia including any
interaction is recommended. Techniques WCAG2 Note: If all of the information in the
video track is already provided in the audio track, no audio description is necessary.
Color coding shall not be used as the only means of conveying information, indicating
an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element. Web pages must
be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also simultaneously visually
evident without color, for example from context or markup. Techniques WCAG1, Techniques
Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated
style sheet. For example, when an HTML document is rendered without associated style
sheets, it must still be possible to read the document. Techniques WCAG1.
Server-side Image Maps
Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image
map. Techniques WCAG1.
Client-side Image Maps
Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except
where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape. Techniques
When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface
elements, the information provided by the script must be identified with functional
text that can be read by assistive technology.
Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.
For example, in HTML use the "title" attribute on FRAME elements.
Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables. For example, in HTML,
use TD to identify data cells and TH to identify headers.
Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that
have two or more logical levels of row or column headers. For example, in HTML, use
THEAD, TFOOT, and TBODY to group rows, COL and COLGROUP to group columns, and the
"axis", "scope", and "headers" attributes, to describe more complex relationships
When electronic forms are designed to be completed online, the form shall allow people
using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality
required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.
Applets and Plug-ins
When a Web page requires that an applet, plug-in, or other application be present
on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a
plug-in or applet that meets the software provisions of TAC §213.30.
All functionality of the content shall be operable through a keyboard interface without
requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying
function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just
the endpoints. Techniques WCAG2 Note 1: This exception relates to the underlying function,
not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input
technique (handwriting) requires path dependent input but the underlying function
(text input) does not. Note 2: This does not forbid and should not discourage providing
mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.
Alternate Text-Only Versions
Alternate text-only versions of Web sites are not recommended. However if, after best efforts, you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternate text-only page that is accessible, has equivalent information or functionality, and is updated as often as the inaccessible (original) page. Techniques WCAG1.
Text (and images of text) must have a contrast ratio of at least 5:1, except if the
text is pure decoration. Larger-scale text or images of text can have a contrast ratio
of 3:1. Techniques WCAG2.
If any audio plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, there must be either a mechanism
to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism to control audio volume which can be set
independently of the system volume. Techniques WCAG2.
Equivalents for dynamic content must be updated when the dynamic content changes.
Content implemented using markup languages must have elements with complete start
and end tags, except as allowed by their specifications, and must be nested according
to their specifications. Techniques WCAG2.
User Interface Components
Link Purpose (context)
On Web pages, it must be possible to determine the purpose of each link from the link
text or the link text together with its programmatically determined link context.
When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading
sequence must be programmatically determined. The sequential navigation of interactive
components must be consistent with that reading sequence. Techniques WCAG2.
Size, Shape, Location
Instructions provided for understanding and operating content must not rely on shape, size, visual location, or orientation of components. Techniques WCAG2.