Western Kentucky University

Dr. Dawn Langkamp Bolton’s Research – Center for Entrepreneurship & Innovation

1. New Menu Labeling Requirements for Retail Food Chains: Possible Impact on Small Business Restaurants

Abstract: Recent legislation requiring retail food chains (with 20 or more locations) to post the calories of menu items prompted new research on the effectiveness of such labeling. Given the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, studies primarily focus on the individual consumer and that person's food choices, given caloric labeling. Little has been written about the impact of the legislation on the retail food chains' business, and even less has been considered for those restaurants that do not fall under the legislation. This manuscript considers the possible impact of the legislation on those small business restaurants and calls for research into this new area of business studies.

Bolton, D.L., (in press). "New Menu Labeling Requirements for Retail Food Chains: Possible Impact on Small Business Restaurants," Entrepreneurial Executive, forthcoming.

2. Female Entrepreneurs' Motives and SME's Growth: An International Study

Abstract: The growth of the proportion of female-owned businesses has been constant over the past decades. However, despite the persistence of the phenomenon, research has shown that female-owned businesses were still smaller and underperforming in terms of growth as compared to male-owned firms. This research contributed to updating the state of knowledge on this topic given the constant evolution of female entrepreneurs' profile, as well as the characteristics of their businesses. A sample of 1,211 entrepreneurs from Canada, Mexico, and the United States, was tested in order to examine these issues

McGraw, E., Cachon, J.-C., Bolton, D. L., Codina, J. B., Eccius-Wellmann, C., Walsh, A. D. (2014). Female Entrepreneurs' Motives and SME's Growth: An International Study. Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education, 2013(3-4), pp. 1-27. www.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/en/3-42013

Access the article here


3. Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Further Investigation of a Measurement Instrument

Abstract: Bolton and Lane (2012) recently proposed, developed, and validated a measure of individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) using a student sample. Their recommendations for future research included testing the instrument with non-student samples. In keeping with Hubbard, Vetter, & Little's (1998) call for publishing of replications with extensions in business research, a sample of 340 entrepreneurs in Western Kentucky was used to further validate the IEO. The ten items on the IEO measuring the dimensions of Innovativeness, Risk-taking, and Proactiveness loaded as separate factors as in the original study, with the exception of one item (for Innovativeness) which loaded on two factors (Innovativeness and Risk-taking). Cronbach alphas computed for the three factors from the sample of entrepreneurs were all above 0.765, further verifying the internal consistency of the IEO. External validity was verified with correlations and t-tests for the IEO with self-reported performance measures by the entrepreneurs. This investigation of the IEO further demonstrates that it is a reliable and valid measure of entrepreneurial orientation at the individual level. A better understanding of entrepreneurial orientation at the individual level could be valuable to potential investors and to those determining business resource allocations.

Bolton, D. L., 2012. "Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Further Investigation of a Measurement Instrument," Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 91-98.


4. Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Development of a Measurement Instrument

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop a measurement instrument for individual entrepreneurial orientation to be used to measure the entrepreneurial orientation of students and other individuals. A measure of Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) was generated, validated, and then tested on 1100 university students. The items for the scale were based on the definitions of the five entrepreneurial orientation dimensions presented by Lumpkin and Dess (1996). Final analysis of the IEO items using exploratory factor analysis resulted in reliable and valid measures for three of the dimensions. The scale development process for Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) resulted in three distinct factors that demonstrated reliability and validity: Innovativeness, Risk-taking, and Proactiveness, which statistically correlated with measures of entrepreneurial intention. An individual-level entrepreneurial orientation measurement instrument can be used to assist in entrepreneurship education and in student team and project assignments. It has value as a factor of influence in determining educational training for various decisions such as career choices and business endeavors. IEO also could be used by venture capitalists who are considering supporting business proposals and by individuals who want to assess the strength of their orientation towards entrepreneurship.

Bolton, Dawn L. and Lane, Michelle D., 2012, "Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Development of a Measurement Instrument," Journal of Education & Training, Vol. 54, Issue 2/3, pp. 219-233.

 Last Modified 1/27/14